When Silence is no Longer Golden

Nigerian Embassy Berlin Germany vs Nigerians

Special Report


Martin Luther King Jr. once said that “On some positions, Cowardice asks the question “Is it safe? “ Expediency asks the question “Is it politic?” And Vanity comes along and asks the question “Is it popular?” But Conscience asks the question “Is it right?” And there comes a time when one must take a position that is neither safe, nor politic, nor popular, but he must do it because Conscience tells him it is right”


The situation for most Nigerians in Germany has reached such a humiliating and frustrating peak that it will be impossible for any Nigerian to remain silent or maintain neutrality in the midst of stretched nerves. The problem that calls for immediate attention is wrapped in amongst others, issues on embassy consular services; e-Passport, Visa, Double citizenship, Renunciations, Mobil consular services and deportations. Truly, staying silent when one should be up against ugly policies does nothing good to those in positions of authority who if left unchallenged, would be basking in the euphoria of a false sense of success in the exercise of duties. It should be noted that some of these issues are not new to most Nigerians who have been in Germany for the last 15 to 20 years. What is new is the dangerous dimension of irrationality and an unbelievable callous attitude by some officers of Nigerian Embassy in Berlin towards an honest and sustainable approach to solving the mentioned problems. While some of the problems are self inflicted others are direct results of bad foreign policies adopted by successive Nigerian governments and happily overplayed by some officers who falter in the claim to be loyal to the system and end up failing to notice the cry of the people. The situation is so ugly and disgusting, it is time to tell the officers that, without Nigerians there will not be a Nigerian foreign mission in Germany.


The introduction of the e-passport as an aftermath of the September 11th bombings in the United States has received a global acceptance and remains a welcomed development. In fact, tying one’s biometric data to a face is a relief to those of us that have seen Nigerian passport lose its value on the international stage due to the high frequency with which some Nigerians claim the loss of their passports at various airports across the world and the ease of replacing one at any back shop in Nigeria and in Nigerian Foreign Missions across the Globe. The new e-passport meets international standards and would go far to eliminate the problems of adequate identification of Nigerians as was the case before now. That is however where the bulk of accreditation ends because the difficulties associated with getting the passport has exposed an inept lack of policy management by both the Nigerian government and her representative including the Nigerian Embassy in Germany, Berlin. A myriad of short-falls in the policy started at the formulation and implementation stages of the policy. These short-comings range from lack of adequate consultation with consular units of the embassies globally at the formulation stage, short time span between the formulation and implementation stages and inadequate equipments and personnel among others. For instance, the swap from machine readable passports to bio-metric data passports (e-passports) was from one day to the other. The required period of sensitization of the Nigerian people about the coming change was not only inadequate but almost non-existent. The result is miss-information, panic and sufferings. Unfortunately, those that should champion immunity to this disease are caught up with it!


Following an extensive and painstaking investigation, Heritage can confirm vehemently that the difficulties and sufferings Nigerians are facing are not necessarily due to the introduction of the e-passport and the payment modalities rather because of the information policies and the naivety of a few officers who prefer to lord over those they should be serving. Germany is blessed with an enormous deposit of human capital of Nigerian descent as evidenced in various professional organizations, why then is it difficult for the Embassy to liaise with them and understand first hand, the peculiar problems of Nigerians in Germany? Indeed, any officer who understands the onus of his/her job as a representative of the Federal republic of Nigeria and Nigerians in Germany would do better than a sit tight arbitrary display of primitive might. The immediate interest of Nigeria and Nigerians in Germany is above that of single individuals who as it seem today, stand miles away from the reality of the average Nigerian in Germany. Instances are abound to buttress the obvious ineptitude of some officers of the Embassy of Nigeria whose attitude to work is a task in itself.


Survey indicates that appointment for passport at the embassy could take up to 3 months


The main problem of the consular section is not that it is heavily understaffed for the bulk of job it handles but also because it is engrossed in the misfortune of leaving public relations in the hand of morally bankrupt persons. Take a random sample of opinion from Nigerians who call and visit the Embassy or try and engage directly in reaching out to the Embassy and you

will encounter a new dimension to organizational paralysis. When the phones are not permanently busy because of heavy traffic that blocks up the few available lines, one is met with uncultured courtesy that is simply the dumping of the stress of work on an innocent caller. If the powers that are in the Embassy would have Nigerians in mind, something swift would have been done by now to adequately address the  afore mentioned short-comings. However, here is a suggestion that nobody should pay for; Please re-adopt the online automatically generated appointment date so nobody from the inside would benefit from

something as simple as giving an appointment or adopt an extra computer generated appointment. The system is perfect for so many reasons; With this mechanism appointment could be done from every computer with internet access in the world, this system is not discriminatory, it is not rude, not busy from 9:00 hrs to 17:00 hrs and has no possibility for the allegation that people inside the embassy collect money to book appointments. Furthermore, this system is user friendly and will remove up to 90% of the pressure on the Embassy phone lines. Moreover, this will also open up access to the embassy, which would mean that the staff and officers could be reached on urgent matters. Both the UK and US and other Western democracies are using this system worldwide for visa appointments which runs on same logic.


Double citizenship and Renunciations


Recently, our new consular department woke up to the rude reality that only the President and commander in chief of the Nigerian Federation have the sole prerogative to renounce a Nigerian citizenship, thanks to Joe Mmeh and Whyte Eguakun who led a coalition of Elders to educate our heavily over paid diplomats that Nigerians in Germany are entitled to double Nationality which was not only entrenched in Nigerian constitution but also in the  „German Aliens and Citizenship Acts” “Ausländergesetz (AuslG) § 85 Abs. 1 Satz 1 Nr. 4” and “Staatsangehörigkeitsgesetz (StAG) § 10 Abs. 1 Satz 1 Nr. 4” that demands foreigners to renounce their Citizenships before taking that of Germany. But the German Federal Government being a country guided by the rule of law and in recognition of the Laws of other nations has some exemptions to this rule. Under their Aliens and Citizenship Acts “Ausländergesetz (AuslG) §87 Abs. 1 Satz 1 – 6”; „Staatsangehörigkeitsgesetz – StAG § and StAG § 12 Abs. 1 Satz 1 – 6“, there are about four conditions or rules under which some Foreigners can be allowed to acquire German Citizenships without renouncing that of their Countries (Double or Multiple Citizenships). They won the battle of the minds and arguments leading the embassy to retreat. This is after months of refusing to take calls on this issue directly or indirectly, or answers inquiries or accept any visit related to double citizenship and renunciation. The questions one is forced to ask includes: – Are our over pampered officers honestly ignorant of the law and do they wrongly advice the Ambassador or could concerned Nigerians group be right that it borders purely on the monetary gain used,to maintain their expensive life style here and after?


There are over 3000 Nigerians with Germen passport, if they all paid the 500 and later 400 Euro renunciation fee, the sum will amount to at least €1,200,000. Who did they account this to? This is however not the point of this article, just a point to ponder, but the fact still remains that it took Chief Nmeh and co to bring the attention of well trained Nigerian diplomats sustained by tax payers money who hitherto refused to reply to many letters written to them and refused to meet Chief Joe Mmeh and his group before this law was repelled. Is this the new Diplomatic policy of the federal government towards its Diaspora or the imaginations of few officers of the Embassy of Nigeria Berlin? These questions are informed by the fact that a similar and more sinister case took place few months ago when a certain Nigerian diplomat refused to meet some group of Nigerians protesting mobile consular hearing who amongst others were accusing the embassy of collecting money for every deported Nigerian. The common practice in such situation is to calm nerves but what we have is a clear refusal by the powers that be in the Embassy.Common now, even the Nigerian government sat down with MEND hence the very popular “armnesty programme”and the government currently plan to negotiate with Boko Haram, so who are these new set of officers representing African biggest democracy that are selective of the Nigerians to meet, if the government who sent them does not discriminate on who to see?


 Mobil consular services and deportation


While I do not share all the views of Joe Nmeh’s group or some others, there is however questions that needs to be asked and answered naturally. These questions includes; is the Mobile consular hearing legal? Is it necessary? What are the merits and demerits? What is the official position of the Embassy on this? What has been the method of communicating their positions to the people they claim to be representing. I am not suggesting that the officers saddled with such responsibilities should break the diplomatic code of silence if it applies in this case but because the issues directly affects our brothers, sisters, sons and daughters therefore,we need to be educated more on the issue. Even with responses gagged in some diplomatic jargons, a trained diplomat should be able to explain to his people the complex diplomatic issues in a language that a common man like us will follow, and that is what they are being paid for anyway. But refusing to meet Nigerian citizens, the media or organized groups and even deriding them in front of the German authorities smack of poor diplomatic

judgement on supposedly trained diplomats known world-wide for their eloquence and ability to use fine words to calm nerves. The least the officer could do is to meet one or two leaders and a promise to pass the massage to the head of the mission, so that it would be on record that he made an attempt regardless of how the agitators would feel. In all honesty, I do not condone illegal acts neither do I mingle with those disobeying the laws of Germany but, an officer of the Embassy of Nigeria attending a mobile deportation hearing in whatever capacity happening outside the walls of the Embassy must provide us with answers. These examples

shows that we have some set of new officers who know it all and are not interested in listening to the opinion of Nigerians whether as facts or fiction. It is rather shocking that we now have diplomats who will rather prefer discussing about the people rather than discuss with the people they came to serve. Could it be that their previous postings did not prepare them for the complex situation like the one in Germany where they are not used or unwillingness to listen to broad based opinion!



New Repressive Embassy Consular policies for German Passport holders


To my knowledge, African Heritage Magazine, African Courier and NIDO had all made attempts to meet with the Managers of our embassy to share ideas with them on the problems of the community as it did in the past which brought about healthy and improved relationship between the mission and the Nigerian people. One would have wished to see an improvement in whatever was gained in the past and make few suggestions which they have the authority to accept or reject anyway, but today, there is virtually no relationship between the officers of the Nigeria Embassy and Nigerians that they represent. Little wonder, after close to one year

call of duty in Germany some of the new officer still have a lot on their desk and have little or no time to listen to the concerns of the people.


I gave these few examples to prepare the reader on the new consular policies which are all interconnected and directly related to the issues Chief Joe Mmeh and his group fought and won including, the threat of a legal action by a Nigerian German based lawyer still pending. Consider the following summary of the new consular policies being adopted at the Nigerian Embassy Berlin based on the account of individual experiences, reports from visa and passports applicants and direct telephone contact with the consular section.


The new policies being adopted means that a Nigerian with a German passport who have not travelled to Nigeria with a particular passport (German), irrespective of the fact that the holder has travelled severally to Nigeria with his/her Nigerian passport before the new status will not enjoy “postage/pick up” visa policy but must come personally to Berlin for an interview since they see the passport holder as a German. Moreover, they must produce a letter of invitation indicating they are invited to visit Nigeria. The fallacy is that, if the renunciation is considered void or made in error, it then follows that every Nigerian having a German passport still enjoys double nationality status before the eyes of the Nigerian law and it is irrelevant if he or she still holds a German passport but is first considered as a citizen of Nigeria. Let us for a minute consider the assumption that the renunciation is still in force, is it proper for a Nigerian travelling to his country to be subjected to the same condition as other nationals? Worst still is the refusal of visa to Nigerians with German passport for the fact that a copy of travelling ticket, invitation letter and photocopy of passport data page is not included. This is over bearing pure and simple. Letter of invitation and the photo copy of invitee’s passport are meant to assure the embassy that the individual will not constitute a political, security or economic liability for the government, and in such a case such individual would be held responsible. So since when are Nigerians now a political, security and economic liability to their own government?


The new policies being adopted also means those children with Nigerian parents having German passport will find it difficult to get a Nigerian nationality because their Father/Mother is considered a German National and not a Nigerian. Such persons applying for Nigerian passport were asked to present further prove that they are Nigerians even though the Embassy “confiscated” the father’s/mother’s passport through the process of illegal renunciation. Even a photo copy of previous passport, receipt from the embassy indicating that they obtained the

Nigerian passport from Nigerian Embassy Berlin and birth certificate mean nothing to them but a copy of Nigerian passport which is already in their custody. Could this be a monetary thing?



The new policies being adopted also means those Nigerian wives (Germans) going home with their husbands are first treated as Germans and must fulfil all the requirements applicable to German citizens. I do not know where some of these officers come from. But in my village if a man is married to a woman either from Kano, Sokoto, Delta or Imo, she becomes part and parcel of the husband community and she enjoys all the privileges accrued to the village women. In Germany if a Nigerian is married to a German, he/she enjoys certain privileges including visa free waiver and all other privileges of individuals married to EU citizens. The

officers are certainly poor students of history, they should ask of the formation of the famous “Nigerwives” in Nigeria. The 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria supports this argument, it defines the following persons as citizens of Nigeria by birth-namely in (a) every person born in Nigeria before the date of independence, either of whose parents or any of whose grandparents belongs or belonged to a community indigenous to Nigeria; in (c) every person born outside Nigeria either of whose parents is a citizen of Nigeria. In paragraph

26 (2) the provisions of this section shall apply to (a) any woman who is or has been married to a citizen of Nigeria; or (b) every person of full age and capacity born outside Nigeria any of whose grandparents is a citizen of Nigeria.



The new policies being adopted means most Nigerians who are forced by the system to adopt some legal measures must now show extra prove and evidence stipulated for German citizens before they are allowed to travel to their fatherland. For the consular section a document showing that a mother is single with full right of custody of the child is in trouble becuase of the fact that the child bears the mothers name. The most befalling height of ignorance is the fact that the passport of some of these kids bear their mother’s name, and shown in the photo copy of their mother’s passport, yet the Embassy would still ask for the father’s passport data page. What ignorance, And for crying out loud what if the father of the child is a randy seed sower that does not water his seed? The woman would have to produce him because she wants to travel to Nigeria!


From the above instances, one wonders if the cacophony of sudden new regulations is meant to protect the citizens of Nigerians and their families in Germany or if they are meant to punish them. The irony is that they are doing an excellent Job for the German immigration authorities by preventing Nigerian citizens from travelling out from Germany.


Travelling to the Embassy: The Experiences of Nigerians


Consider a typical scenario of the journey of a Nigerian from his city to the Embassy and draw the conclusion for yourself; A Nigerian is forced to visit the Embassy for consular services after trying for weeks and months on phone to get credible consular information. The information on the website as we know is unreliable and gives conflicting details that is if and when you are lucky to see that one exists. After managing to secure information, you come to Berlin and you are forced to run over to a call centre nearby to fill the e-form, out of desperation one pays over 200 Euros for a 65 $ fee to an unscrupulous middle man and pay another 10 euro for every print out. Additional 40 Euro is paid to the embassy account at Postbank Berlin for administrative fee, not before parting with additional 8 euro at the post bank for cash payment. If you are unlucky and it is too late to be attended to for the day, then you are likely to end up in a hotel for at least 60 euro a night. Add a minimum transportation cost of 150 and we would arrive at a conservative cost of 500 Euros which is the equivalent of most individuals’ salary for a month. Could all these be avoided? Yes.


It is on record that in some particular circumstances the passport could be issued on the same day. This should be a standard practice even for an extra fee and should not be an exception. If and when this is done, it eliminates the cost and time of traveling twice to Berlin with all associated health and job risks as well as the financial implications. If the information policy of the embassy is consistent and effective, one could get all the necessary information and plans for the journey and can also make alternative plans of passing the night with a family member of friend if necessary. If appointment could be done on line, one can chose the most

convenient date and time to plan his travel and those willing to use the telephone will still have easy access to the consular section and the whole stress and loss of manpower is saved.


Moreover, the online appointment could be structured in a way that a limited number of applicants could be attended to in a day. Our research proved that most Nigerians are willing to wait a little longer if there is a need for that as long as they will get a fair and decent service and go home with their passport same day after appropriate approval.


Investigation also reveals that while some are juggling their brain on how best to serve Nigerians others are joggling for positions and being the yes sir man. We are looking forward and hope the New Ambassador will give direction to the chaotic embassy consular and information policy and improve on his predecessor’s achievements ending once and for all the on-going in-house fight at the expense of the Nigerian citizens in Germany.



HIBC GmbH Germany and consular facilitating service


While I have been silent over the facts and fictions surrounding the HiBC consular facilitating services, a private limited company, I act as the CEO, it is perhaps pertinent to offer some clarifications for the benefit of those seeking and willing to know the truth and able to separate facts from fiction.


Heritage International Business Concept GmbH (HiBC) is a Communication and project management firm, based in Hamburg and the parent company of African Heritage magazine, Nigerian Year Book and European office of Abuja Digest International.


The company engages in further fields of activity such as media counselling and public promotion, tailored to fit the requirements of African companies in Germany. As a company with its roots in Nigeria and a foothold in Germany, Heritage International Business Concept acts as a business and cultural consultant and guarantees that the measures taken in the framework of the business location marketing and culture remain authentic.


For example, at HiBC GmbH, we believe that obtaining or renewal of Nigerian International Passport is a fundamental right of every Nigerian in Germany and Europe. We also believe that lack of Bank Account or Credit Cards should not be an obstacle to obtaining or the renewal of Nigerian National passport. According to the SW Global clam, which is also verifiable, the e-passport technology has saved Nigerian people and the Government millions of Dollars. My view is that some individuals at the foreign services are trying to frustrate Nigerians in their respective embassies to give the impression that the system is not working, a deceitful and malicious disguise to revert to the old system of corruption and squandemania. At the embassy initial move was made to collect cash as usual and we all know where most of the money will end.


Are there some bottlenecks with the new system? Yes, there are some difficulties as already identified by the operators.


1. Card Holder must have the same surname as applicant or applicants (in cases where user is applying for others – Limit of 5 applicants per transaction for unregistered users); If the Card Holder meets above criteria, they can process once per month. To process more than once a month for example travel Agents, then they must register the card on the SW Global platform and after careful verification such Agent is authorized to process multiple applications.


2. If card Holder does not have the same surname as applicant(s), the card holder still pay on the platform simply by registering the card. Registration requires upholding a valid photo ID document or international passports or driver’s license depending on country and also the last bank statement for the card clearly showing cardholders name and address.


Once done, this is verified and approved and this process takes about 24 hours. Unfortunately about 60% of users in Germany do not bother to read the instruction which is on the NIS website. This is my personal experience with over 1000 visa and passport applicants.


As the CEO of HiBC who have demonstrated my passion and who have a proven record to serve the community over the past 15 years, I have in collaboration with SW Global the platform responsible for processing Passport and Immigration fees brought the attention of the company to the fact that in Germany and some parts of Europe sizeable numbers of Nigerians do not have the need for a credit card because of the EC- Cards with doubles as credit card in Germany, and more so some of our people do not necessary operate a bank account for one reason or the other. In recognition of this fact and in the spirit of meeting the needs of Nigerians HiBC re-engineered its consular fascinating service which has been in operation

over the past 10 years specially designed to assist applicants with little IT knowledge and applicants without bank account or credit cards in Germany, continental Europe and DACH regions to process their online payments weather, British, American or Nigerian Visa. HiBC GmbH charges a moderate fee for the extra services. The fees are transparent and are available online for individual verification, except for additional services other than the ones listed on the web and I am proud to say that we have been of assistance to over 1000 Nigerians and Germans alike in the last few Months.


While this may sound as self serving, the difference between the SW Global cost and HiBC is barely enough to upset the bank charges and the over 34% German notorious corporate tax compare to cost incurred by applicants who have to travel to their respective Embassy, get exploited by unscrupulous individuals posing as agents, get yielded at, for incomplete documentations and sent back e.t.c. and sometimes meant to pass the nights in hotel simply because of poor information management and the unwillingness on the part of the managers of the consular section to actively discuss and adopt needed regulations to make the new system more effective and easy for majority of Nigerians thereby saving people the agony

of consular services. A couple of individuals with the possibility of multiply payment have been of assistance to Nigerians, completing the forms online, providing needed information that could have been easily gotten from the embassy, doing the print out since all the computers provided at the consular section during the call of Duty of Ambassador Rimdap and the printers have all grown wings and disappeared and no effort is being made to replace them. Instead of putting ideas on how to alleviate the hardship of Nigerians in Germany, or properly investigate the more serious cases of internal corruption and fraud, sexual harassment and nepotism the consular department is busy implementing tougher measures inimical to the progress and well being of Nigerians in Germany. Lately, they added the joker of faulting the well intentioned services of HiBC while admitting Germans who get more pay for the same services that we provide .Does it smack racism in your eyes? Be the judge!!!


Having the privilege of being at the point of contact to the community, the current disconnect between the Embassy and Nigerians in Germany is unprecedented and is likely to get even worse unless checked. While no one will wish that Nigeria remain stand still in the information age, having a listening ear and adopting policy implementation with a human face could do the magic. What exactly are the reference points to consular policy management in the Embassy of Nigeria or is it free for anybody to just come and decide as he wills?


Few months ago the United States (U.S.) Mission in Nigeria introduced new procedures for non-immigrant visa interview appointments. In the new procedure, applicants in Abuja and Lagos who wish to schedule a non-immigrant visa appointment were requested do so via a new website http://www.ustraveldocs.com/ng – or through the assistance of a new call centre

which they gave as 09-460-1748. Both the new website and call centre are managed by a visa support services firm by the name CGI.


Further, the new regulations also stated that “all persons scheduling appointments under the new system after March 1, 2011 would need to pay the applicable visa fees at a branch of Guaranty Trust Bank (GT Bank) first in order to book an appointment”.


The UK visa services is not different, World Bridge Service is a commercial company providing services to help people apply for visas, and same is Visa fix service company for UK Visa. While critics might be quick to draw a line between Visa and passport they should also bear in mind that the procedure, logic and technology are the same. They make consular services more efficient and eliminate loopholes and corruption. While this must not be the case with Nigeria, until the system is fine tuned for affectivity, it will be clear madness to tell a Nigerian who have been waiting for years for his or her passport or who wish to travel in an

emergency situation to wait until the federal executive council sits and decide otherwise with the current system.


Being part of the solution


From my limited IT knowledge, the issue on the use of Credit card borders on the high security restrictions that are specifically designed to discourage the use of stolen cards rather than the e-passport itself. The matter is made worse by the high fraud rate recorded with some unscrupulous individuals that are not necessarily Nigerians using stolen credit cards on the SW Global platform.


Secondly securing an appointment at the Nigerian Embassy is more difficult than getting Mr. President in Aso rock which is because of poor staffing, training and the poor telephone configuration. I am shocked at the level most Nigerian are ready to go including paying anything to avoid any traumatic contact with the embassy and this is simply a shame.


For the avoidance of doubt HiBC have no arrangement directly or indirectly with The Embassy of Nigeria as some critic and paid agents has been peddling, but I do not see any conflict of interest if HiBC will be a part of a solution for the benefit of Nigerians with regards to consular services and I am extremely happy with the majority of over 1000 applicants who had used our facilitating services. As stated also by SW Global letter to the minster, HiBC IS AN INDEPENDENT ORGANIZATION BASED IN GERMANY AND HAS NO RELATIONSHIP (PRIOR OR PRESENT) WITH SOCKETWORKS LIMITED AND SW GLOBAL AND/OR ANY OF ITS DIRECTORS, SHAREHOLDERS OR



The concern for the difficulties that applicants without bank accounts or credit cards are facing led SW Global, to approve our three steps approach which is short, simple and convenient and it is also absolutely optional for those without credit cards. Those with credit cards can use their cards as usual in line with SW Global terms of services. The policy at the embassy have not in any way affected HiBC services, contrary to that, it has lead to a dramatic increase. But if I have to choice between business for HiBC and the suffering of most Nigerians, I will chose to be on the side of the people.


As Nigerians, we are concerned about the high rate of corruption over the years. Most of the money earned over the years at various foreign missions on passport and visas ended up in a few pockets. I am convinced that the e-passport technology has saved the Nigeria people and the Government millions of Dollars. We cannot claim to fight corruption, lack of development and when we see a policy that tried to check that we cry foul and fail to take measures to eliminate it. Ideas are needed on ways to improve on this innovative system. It is not enough to ask the Federal government to scrap it without suggesting on an improved system that serves the need of the people and eliminate corrupt practises. We cannot be on both sides and

be divided at the same time. My views which I have already expressed is that some individuals at the foreign services are trying to frustrate Nigerians in their respective countries to give the impression that the system is not working, a disguise to revert to the old system and open up ways to cash and carry transaction and we all know what that means for all of us. Let us be honest, we do not need passport every week, only once in 5 years. I believe the system could work most effectively if those at our various mission should just allow it to work.


While we submit to letting the officers do their Job, we will also do our job which is to cover issues as they are regardless of whose ass is gored. This matter has spread a smear on the goldenness of silence! This article is part of a summary of an on-going collation of experiences by Nigerians who encountered the Embassy of Nigeria Berlin lately. Further reports would include accounts of passport racketing inside and outside of the Embassy, alleged sexual harassment and the inside power at the expense of Nigerians in Germany.


Kenneth Gbandi is the Editor in Chief, African Heritage Magazine. Holds a master in Peace and Security Studies (MPS) from the University of Hamburg and a candidate for Senate of Hamburg Integration advisory Council for representing over 35,000 Africans in Hamburg, German second largest city.


Reactions to this article is welcomed to send their reactions to info@africanheritagemagazine.de and with permission could be publish in our next edition of African Heritage Magazine.



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